At the roof of any private house is an incredibly responsible and multidisciplinary task – during its entire service life it must protect the dwelling from snow, rain, wind, scorching sun rays and winter frosts. In order to maintain the warmth and comfort in the house, the roof must be properly designed, the design and materials of the execution should be chosen taking into account the nuances of the architectural structure and the climatic conditions. But besides the rationally chosen form, reliable materials and qualitatively carried out erection, any owner would like to see not only the protection of his home from the vagaries of nature, but also an external attractive building element that adorns the building or brings originality to its image.
Roof for a private house – a variety of forms
You probably already saw many options for the execution of roofs in the construction of a modern home. The variety of forms will help not only to determine the most appropriate way to protect the building from weather conditions, but also to find its solution for implementing design ideas for creating an original image. Before choosing the type of roof for your home, it makes sense to familiarize yourself with the design features of various options for its implementation. If we talk about the global division of roofs into species, the main criteria are:
- material type;
- roof slope;
- form and form of construction.
It is the right choice of these three components that will help create a truly reliable, durable and durable coating of the building that can withstand all the nuances of climatic conditions. The main influence on the choice of the type of construction will be the weather conditions in the area – there is no sense in constructing a roof with a slight slope in places with a lot of precipitation in the winter (snow will accumulate and subsequently destroy the structure).
The main classification of roofs takes place according to the shape and number of skates. The slope is the roof slope more than ten degrees. Roofs come with one, two and four rays. There are also more complex designs, equipped with combined skates – multi-hinged and hipped roofs. Less often, but still occur in the construction of private houses, dome and conical roof models. If in the construction of the roof there are several variants of execution and forms, it is called combined.
So, let’s analyze the details of the execution of roofs in private houses of different sizes and shapes, located in different climatic conditions:
single-skinned roof – the most simple and cost-effective design, which does not require large financial and labor costs for installation;
gable – no less than a cost-effective construction of the roof, which is often used for buildings of very different shapes (ideal for regions with a lot of snow);
mansard roof – a variant of a double-skinned roof with a broken profile (each ramp has two levels, the first is sloping, the second – a falling one);
the hip roof is suitable for buildings with a large area. It is capable of withstanding large wind loads;
hip roof with arc-shaped slope (by pagoda type) is infrequent due to the complexity of manufacturing. But the appearance is very attractive, original;
hipped roof – a kind of hip roof, which is ideal for buildings of square shape (the roof consists of four triangles, which are reduced to aprons by the type of tent);
semi-high roof – another sub-type of the hip roof (a slightly more complicated structure for a gable roof);
multi-clasp roof has a rather complicated design (suitable for both square and rectangular houses);
vaulted roof – the name speaks for itself – the roof has the shape of a vault (rarely used as the main type of roofing of residential buildings, more often serves as a supplement);
the diamond roof represents four diamonds centered on the center and is ideal for houses that have the shape of a square in the basement.
In addition to classification in form, there is a division of roofs into:
The name speaks for itself. To exploited roofs are flat roofs on which it is possible to equip an outdoor recreation area, a sports ground, a terrace and even a lawn with plants. The advantage of a flat roof is not only in the simplicity of execution, the minimum amount of materials and time costs, but also that such a roof will not even break a strong wind. A significant disadvantage is the accumulation of precipitation on a flat surface without a slope.
Recently, it is fashionable to use the roof surface to create real masterpieces of landscape design. The high cost of land in the city also plays a role, and the desire to have a green corner in walking distance, and the possibilities of a modern market of materials and plants for organizing similar oases on the roofs.
If we talk not only about the aesthetic side of using the roof surface, but also practical, the most popular way to create an effective space is to install solar panels. Energy saving and fairly high prices for electricity encourage many private house owners to use alternative energy sources that are easy to install on the roof itself.
Also, all variants of roofs can be divided into two groups:
If the distance between the ceiling and the roof surface does not exceed one and a half meters, then this type of roof is considered attic. Usually this space is used for technical needs. An unclosed roof is used in case there are ideas of using space under the roof for the organization of living quarters. In addition, the attic space can be arranged already in the finished building, having built the second floor.
How to choose a slope for the roof
By type of bias, all roofs are divided into ramps and flat. The slope is the slope angle of the ramp relative to the horizon line. Most often it is measured in degrees, less often – as a percentage of the height of the roof to the length of the span. For example, the slope of 100% corresponds to 45 degrees.
The main reason for arranging the slope of the roof is the need to remove sediments from its surface. If the bias is not at all (less than 1%), then the roof will often leak, causing inconvenience to the owners. And outwardly such approach to the organization of a covering of buildings is more suitable for economic buildings. Although many designers offer such constructive solutions as an original way of allocating a building among similar houses on the same street.
When choosing a roof slope option, it is assumed that the maximum load from the fallen snow on the surface is achieved at a slope angle of 30 degrees. To ensure that such a roof could be cleared (the snow naturally rolled down), the slope should be 45 degrees.
In addition to precipitation, wind gusts affect the roof. With an increase in slope by 20-30%, the wind load on the roof increases 5 times. But even a very slight deviation is not an option, the wind can penetrate through the overlap joints and disrupt the structure, which is called from within. That is why the design justification of the shape of the roof and its bias should be trusted by competent specialists who take into account all the nuances of the weather conditions of a particular area.
In order to determine the amount of slope, specialists use special calculation formulas and graphs. They are easy to find on the Internet. In short, to determine the slope it is necessary to calculate the ratio of the size of the ridge to half the width of the house. After multiplying the resulting number by 100, we get the desired slope value. If we talk about the bias, with regard to construction costs, then they increase with the increase in the value of this indicator.
Despite the obvious fact of rise in the cost of the pitched roof in relation to the flat model, all builders put in priority the reliability, durability and strength of the structure, rather than the initial costs. Therefore, pitched roof construction is the most popular variant of the private house covering. The slope of such a roof will be determined not only by the wind and snow load, but also by the aesthetic appearance. In addition, the roof slope is determined using a specific building material.
We select building materials depending on the slope of the roof
In order to ensure that the roof is a reliable protection for the building from any manifestations of weather, it is necessary to take into account the angle of inclination of the ramp (skates) when choosing the roofing material:
slate or asbestos-cement sheets wavy – the coating can be used with a roof slope of 13 to 60 degrees. If the slope is less than 13 degrees, water will fall into the joints of the roofing material, significantly shortening the life of the coating (and slate can not be attributed to durable materials);
ceramic tiles – the slope for this type of coating is in the range of 30 to 60 degrees. Laying ceramic tiles with a slope of less than 30 degrees is possible, but additional measures should be taken to arrange ventilation and waterproofing of the roof;
metal tile is one of the most popular materials used in private construction. One of the advantages of this roofing is that the maximum angle is not normalized, and the minimum is 15 degrees;
Profiled sheeting is rarely used as a permanent material for covering private houses (mainly, it is used for farm buildings, garages). The material is laid with a roof slope of 10 degrees (the maximum value is not standardized);
bitumen shingles – excellent for unusual roofs with arched shapes. The angle of the slope must be at least 12 degrees, the maximum value is not limited;
bitumen slate – used infrequently and with a slope of at least 5 degrees. The maximum value is also not present, but it is necessary to take into account the angle of inclination for the calculation of the crate – at a gradient of 5 to 10 degrees, solid flooring is usually arranged;
folded steel roof – is used at an angle of inclination from 20 degrees (the final figure is not limited).
In a special group of roofing materials, it is possible to distinguish double-glazed windows and sheets of tempered glass, from which a part of the roof is often made. Usually it is a visor of a veranda or a greenhouse, less often – a kitchen or living room in a private house. The design, of course, turns out to be externally incredibly attractive, not to mention the aesthetic features of the appearance of the overlappings inside the room, but also the cost of such architectural solutions will require considerable. Glass is able to withstand a rather large snow and wind load. Most often it is attached to the profile of metal, rarely – it performs solo.
When choosing a coating to create a roof, it is necessary to use a simple rule – the denser the structure of the roofing material, the smaller the angle of inclination of the pitched roof. If you take into account the angle of inclination of the roof slope when choosing the material, you can get a durable and strong construction ready to withstand the different climatic features of a particular area.
Design and color solution
The choice of the color of roofing materials in the rulers of modern manufacturers of building and finishing materials is incredibly wide. You can use the color to create a harmonious ensemble of the structure and its roof or to distinguish the roof with a bright, contrasting hue. The only thing you need to decide when choosing a color solution for roofing material is whether you want the roof of the house to merge with the environment (greenery, mountains, steppes for country house ownership and other buildings for city apartments) or stand out against the general background of the landscape with brightness, contrast .
If the facade of your house is made in light colors, then contrasting the dark roof may not be an original addition to the image of the building, but also to distinguish it among other buildings on the street or outside the city, among green plants.
The opposite situation, when the roofing material is chosen in a light tone, and the facade is finished in dark color, is infrequent. The more valuable and original will look your building, standing out among many similar to each other private houses built next door.
The bright, rich color of the roof will help create a truly unique image of your architectural structure. If your task is to attract attention to a private home, the colorful color of the roofing material is a great way to achieve the goal. But in this case, the facade of the building should be executed in a neutral tone.